The two types of residential smoke alarms that are most commonly used in the United States are ionization and photoelectric. Photoelectric-type smoke alarms contain a very tiny amount of radioactive material. Combination smoke alarms, which contain both ionization and photoelectric smoke sensors, also contain a very tiny amount of radioactive material. Although some state regulations allow you to simply throw these smoke alarms in the trash, you will still need to remove the batteries from the alarm.
How to tell if your smoke detector contains radioactive material:
If a smoke detector contains radioactive material, it is required by law to have a warning label on the body of the smoke detector. The label is usually located at the “top” of the detector, facing the mounting base that attaches to the ceiling or wall. Remove the smoke detector from its base, and look at the label. A typical label might read:
This product is designed to detect products of combustion using ionization technology. It contains 0.9 microcurie of Americium 241, a radioactive material
The label may have the international symbol for radiation on the label.
If a smoke detector does not include either the warning or the radiation symbol on the label, and if there is no evidence that the label has been removed or destroyed, it is safe to assume that the device does not contain any radioactive material. If the label has been removed or destroyed, it is best to treat the device as if it is an ionization unit, and dispose of it as described below.
Here are the three ways to dispose of your smoke alarms:
- If allowed in your area, remove the batteries and wrap the unit in newspaper. You then are able to throw the smoke alarm in the trash.*
- If accepted in your area, take to a local Recycling Center, or take to a Hazardous Material Waste Center.*
- Ionization smoke alarms and combination smoke alarms can be sent back to the manufacturer. They have the proper equipment to safely dispose of the smoke alarms.
For more information on the proper disposal of smoke alarms please refer to one of the sites below or check with your state or local authorities.